ASISTENCIJA ŽRTVAMA TRGOVINE LJUDIMA KROZ PRIZMU DRŽAVNOG REFERALNOG MEHANIZMA U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI

Samira Hunček

Sažetak


Inspiracija za rad: Bosna i Hercegovina se sa fenomenom trgovine ljudima suočila devedesetih godina. U tom periodu BiH je bila zemlja krajnjeg odredišta dok je danas to zemlje porijekla, tranzita i odredišta. Žrtve su, u najvećem broju slučajeva, državljani Bosne i Hercegovine a većinom ih čine djeca. Efikasan odgovor na trgovinu ljudima, pored krivičnog gonjenja, mora uključiti i istovremenu potpunu i odgovarajuću zašti- tu žrtava trgovine ljudima. Adekvatna zaštita,  počevši od identifikacije i smještaja u sigurnu kuću, će žrtvama osigurati oporavak narušenog fizičkog i mentalnog zdravlja te ponovno uključivanje u zajednicu i društvene procese, Ovo je jedan od najkompleksnijih i najzahtjevnijih  zadataka u oblasti borbe protiv trgovine ljudima.

Ciljevi rada: Cilj ovog rada je evidentirati postojeće stanje, kao i prednosti i nedostat- ke referalnog mehanizma u asistenciji žrtvama trgovine ljudima, te na određeni način ukazati na potrebe njegovog eventulanog unapređenja.

Metodologija/ dizajn: U izradi rada biće obavljena uporedna analiza konceptualnih i analitičkih institucionalni okvira uz kvalitativnu analizu teorijskih i metodoloških pri- stupa kroz prizmu referalnog mehanizma u identifikaciji i asistenciji žrtvama trgovine ljudima.

Ograničenja rada/ istraživanja: Veliki je broj nadležnih institucija na raznim nivoima vlasti i organizacija civilnog društva koji imaju svoje vrlo specifične uloge u zaštiti žrtava trgovine ljudima. Ove institucije i organizacije su u praksi malo ili skoro nikako uključene u procese identifikacije i/ili asistencije žrtvama trgovine ljudima. Proces zaštite i pomoći žrtvama je dugotrajan i veoma zahtjevan te je neophodna pravovremena, kooridnirana i usmjerena aktivnost. Ovaj proces je reguliran brojnim zakonima, podzakonskim aktima i drugim dokumentima. Obezbjeđenje finansijskih sredstava za adekvatnu zaštitu, rehabilitaciju, resocijalizaciju i reintegraciju žrtava trgovine ljudima predstavlja evidentan problem.  Sa druge strane, problem se ogleda i u nedovoljnoj educiranosti i informiranosti nadležnih institucija na svim nivoima.

Rezultati: Obzirom da je Bosna i Hercegovina zemlje porijekla,  tranzita i destinacije, te istovremeno u skladu sa mnogobrojnim institucijama koje imaju značajnu ulogu u asistenciji žrtvama trgovine ljudima potrebno je provesti sistemsko mapiranje potencijalno pristupačnih usluga,   kao što su savjetovanje,   stručna obuka,   inicijative za reintegraciju žrtava trgovine ljudima.

Generalni zaključak:  Bosna i Hercegovina se ubrzano počela suočavati sa domaćim žrtvama u svrhu seksualne i radne eksploatacije u drugim dijelovima zemlje, kao i sve češćim  iskorištavanjem djece u svrhu prosjačenja i nekih novih pojavnih oblika. Kako bi se unaprijedio multidisciplinarni pristup nadležnih institucija i organizacija, identifikaciji i pružanju pomoći žrtvama trgovine, posebno djeci, potrebno je iznaći sve potrebne resurse za podizanje svijesti o ovoj problematici.

Opravdanost istraživanja/ rada: Unapređenje multisektorskog pristupa u asistenciji žrtvama trgovine ljudima, te zaštiti djece žrtava, procesa određivanja najboljeg interesa i identifikacije trajnog rješenja za svako dijete je obaveza koju je Bosna i Hercegovina preuzela pristupanjem svim važnim međunarodnim konvencijama.

----------------------------------------------------------

Assistance to the THB victims in BiH through prism of national referral mechanism

 

Reason for writing and research problem(s): Bosnia and Herzegovina faced the THB phenomenon in 1990’s as country of the destination, while nowadays Bosnia and Herzegovina is the country of origin, transit and destination too. Majority of the THB BiH nationals victims are children. The efficient response to the THB, alongside the prosecution, must encompass an overall and appropriate THB victims’ protection. An adequate protection, starting with identification and sheltering in a safe house, provides for the victims to recuperate from effected physical and mental health issues and enables reintegration in to community and social processes. This is one of the most complex and demanding steps and tasks in combatting the THB. BIH Referral Mechanism is complex, thus we must be aware of several issues.

Aims of the paper (scientific and/ or social): The aim of this paper is to map the current state of play, shed a light on advantages and disadvantages of the existing NRM in providing assistance to the THB victims in BiH so that we have better indicators and indications on where and how to improve it, should it evidence required.

Methodology/ Design: In the making of the work being carried out comparative analysis of conceptual and analytical institutional framework with a qualitative analysis of theoretical and methodological approaches through the prism of referral mechanism in identifying and assisting the victims of trafficking.

Research/ Paper limitation: There is a vast number of competent institutions, at all levels of government, and civil society organisations that are parts of the Mechanism, each respectively given specific tasks in protecting the THB victims. However, in practice, the elements are either insufficiently, or not at all, involved in processes of identification and/or victim assistance. One interpretation of such condition may be drawn from the sheer multitude of the RM elements, which opens grounds to flaws in network interrelationship, coordination and unified interpretation of the competencies given.  The process of the THB victims’ protection and assistance, regulated by numerous laws, bylaws and other pertinent documents, is lengthy, very demanding, and requires timely, coordinated and focused activities. Securing financial resources for adequate protection, rehabilitation, re-socialization and reintegration of victims of trafficking is an evident problem. Furthermore, there is an issue of relevant institutions at all levels that are inadequately cognizant.

Results/ Findings: Since Bosnia and Herzegovina is the country of origin, transit and destination, and at the same time in accordance with a number of institutions that play an important role in assisting the victims of trafficking should be carried out systematically mapping potentially accessible services, such as counseling, vocational training, initiatives for the reintegration of victims trafficking.

General conclusion: Bosnia and Herzegovina is rapidly began to deal with domestic victims for the purposes of sexual and labor exploitation in other parts of the country, as well as more frequent advantage of children for begging and some new forms. To improve the multidisciplinary approach of relevant institutions and organizations identifying and assisting victims of trafficking, especially children, need to find all the necessary resources to raise awareness of this issue.

research/ Paper validity: Improvement of multi-sectoral approach in assisting the victims of trafficking, and the protection of child victims, the process of determining the best interests and the identification of durable solutions for every child is an obligation that Bosnia and Herzegovina assumed by accessing all relevant international conventions.


Ključne riječi


trgovina ljudima; žrtve trgovine ljudima; zaštita; asistencija; referalni mehanizam; finansijska sredstva; trafficking in human beings (the THB); the THB victims; protection; assistance; referral mechanism; financial means

Cijeli tekst:

PDF

Povratni linkovi

  • Trenutno nema povratnih linkova



Copyright © 2015 - Fakultet za kriminalistiku, kriminologiju i sigurnosne studije, Sarajevo