NASILJE NAD DJECOM I MEĐU DJECOM U DOMOVIMA ZA DJECU BEZ RODITELJSKOG STARANJA U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI

Elmedin Muratbegović, Dragana Bulić, Muhamed Budimlić

Sažetak


Inspiracija za rad i problem koji se radom oslovljava: Ozbiljnost jedne moderne države danas se sigurno  može mjeriti i kriterijem brige za djecu, ali i svesrdnim pokušajima zaštite djece u svim okolnostima i statusima. Kompleksnost problema “nasilja nad djecom” kao pojave, neosporno ukazuje na potrebu za interdisciplinarno djelovanje, ali i za diferencirane društvene reakcije. Tačnije, ovdje govorimo o intervencijama koje preduzimaju različite institucije zadužene za osiguranje osnovnih prava djeteta, odnosno o intervencijama koje zavise od oblika i forme nasilja, te od djelotvornosti akcija preduzetih s ciljem da se zaštite djeca.

Cilj rada: Osnovni cilj ovog rada je dobiti jasnu sliku o obimu i strukturi nasilja nad djecom i među djecom u domovima za djecu bez roditeljskog staranja u BIH.

Metodologija: U ovom istraživanju koristili smo specijalno izrađene instrumente za prikupljanje podataka. Ovdje prvenstveno mislimo na upitnik za anketiranje djece u domovima za djecu bez roditeljskog staranja ali i odraslih osoba koje rade u tim domovima. S druge strane, izrađen je i poseban protokol za fokus grupni intervju sa djecom koja se nalaze u domovima. U šest provedenih fokus grupa je učestvovalo 69 djece, djevojčica i dječaka školskog uzrasta, iz različitih ranjivih skupina, koja su i sama žrtve i/ili svjedoci različitih oblika nasilja, zloupotrebe i zanemarivanja ili su pod rizikom od istog. Fokus grupe su realizovane na lokacijama u općinama Tuzla, Lukavac, Sarajevo. Anketiranje je rađeno korištenjem setova upitnika, razvijenih posebno za svaku ciljnu kategoriju  kojima su tretirane sljedeće tematske grupe pitanja: Povjerenje u osobe koje te okružuju; Nasilje u tvom okruženju; Sistem prijavljivanja nasilje i Reakcija na nasilje.

Ograničenja istraživanja (rada): Ograničenje ovog istraživanja, ogleda se u činjenici da nismo imali pristup domovima u svim dijelovima BIH.

rezultati /Generalni zaključak: Petina ispitivane djece u domu izjavljuje da u domu možeš biti žrtva nasilja, jer niko ništa ne poduzima da se ono iskorijeni, dok polovina smatra da to tamo nije moguće. S druge strane, osoblje doma apsolutno negira ovaj stav. Vrlo interesantan podatak tiče se stava da u domu i izvan njega vladaju nasilna djeca i niko ništa ne čini da to spriječi, sa kojim se slaže nešto više od trećine (34%) ispitivane djece u domovima, dok naravno osoblje domova to kategorički odbija (84%).

Opravdanost istraživanja / rada: Ovim istraživanjem se želi ukazati da se moramo baviti istraživanjima sa “otvorenim umom” I da moramo odmaći od interpretacije statističkih podataka iz zvaničnih institucija. Ovo je naročito važno u situacijama I problemima u kojima se pojavljuje dijete. Upravo ovaj rad, otvara mogućnost sistemskog djelovanja na polju aproksimacije stvarnog stanja nasilja nad djecom ili među djecom u domovima za djecu u BIH.

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Violence against and between children without parental care in Bosnia and  Herzegovina

 

Reason for writing and research problem(s): Reason for writting and Researh problem(s): The seriousness of a modern state can certainly be measured today by the criteria of concern for children, but also by compelling attempts to protect children in all circumstances and statuses. The complexity of the problem of “violence against children” as a phenomenon undoubtedly points to the need for interdisciplinary action, but also for differentiated social responses. Specifically, we are talking about interventions undertaken by various institutions responsible for securing basic rights of the child, i.e interventions that depend on the form of violence, and the effectiveness of actions taken to protect children.

Aims of the paper (scientific and/or social): The main objective of this paper is to get a clear picture of the scope and structure of violence against children and those in homes for children without parental care in BiH.

Methodology/ Design: In this research, we have used specially developed data collection tools. Here, we primarily think of a questionnaire for children surveyed in homes for children without parental care but also for adults working in these homes. On the other hand, a special protocol for interviewing the focus group was developed for children in these homes. In the six focus groups, 69 children, girls and boys of school age participated in different vulnerable groups who are victims and / or witnesses of different forms of violence, abuse and neglect or are at risk of it. Focus groups were implemented at locations in Tuzla, Lukavac, and Sarajevo municipalities. Surveying was done using a set of questionnaires, developed specifically for each target category that addressed the following thematic groups of questions: Trust in the people around you; Violence in your environment; Violence Reporting System and Reaction to Violence.

Research/ Paper limitation: Limitation of this study lies in the fact that we did not have access to homes in all parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Results/ General Conclusion: One fifth of surveyed children in the homes for children stated that the home can be place where one is victim to violence, because no one does anything to stop it, and the other half thinks that violence at the homes for children is not possible. On the other hand, the staff at the homes for children absolutely disagrees with this view. A very interesting fact concerns the view that the inside and 

outside of the children’s home is controlled by violent children, and nobody does anything to stop it, just over a third (34%) of surveyed children’s homes, agree with this fact, and of course the staff of children’s homes categorically rejects (84 %).

Research/ Paper Validity: This research is to point out that we have to engage the investigations with “an open mind” and that we need to move away from interpreting statistical data from official institutions. This is particularly important in situations with problems regarding children. This work opens up the possibility of systematic action in the field of approximating the real state violence against children and among children in homes for children in Bosnia and Herzegovina:


Ključne riječi


djeca; nasilje; domovi za djecu; prepoznavanje; reakcija; children; violence; homes for children; identification; reaction

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