SARADNJA SJEVERNOATLANTSKOG SAVEZA I BOSNE I HERCEGOVINE

Amina Smailhodžić

Abstract


Inspiracija za rad i problem(i) koji se radom oslovljava(ju): Bosna i Hercegovina, država u tranziciji, nastoji da ostvari strateške ciljeve i to članstvo u Sjevernoatlantski savez (NATO) i Europsku uniju (EU).  Način priključenja Sjevernoatlantskom savezu ima specifičnu, jasno  definisanu proceduru. Ulazak u Sjevernoatlantski savez u tehničkom smislu se odvija kroz učešće u političko-vojnom programu Partnerstvu za mir, Procesu planiranja i revizije, Individualnom partnerskom programu, Individualnom partnerskom akcijskom planu, Akcijskom planu za članstvo i Konceptu operativnih sposobnosti i ocjenjivanja i povratnih informacija. Reforma u oblasti odbrane u Bosni i Hercegovini se zasniva na principu kolektivne sigurnosti. Proces reforme odbrane u Bosni i Hercegovini podrazumijeva stvaranje profesionalnih Oružanih snaga, od kojih se zahtijeva organizaciona, materijalna, proceduralna i druga usklađenost za zajedničku upotrebu sa NATO i NATO/PfP snagama u različitim uslovima zbog izvršenja misija i zadataka.

Ciljevi rada(naučni i/ili društveni): Cilj rada jeste upoznavanje komplementarnih mehanizama na osnovu kojih se odvija saradnja Sjevernoatlantskog saveza i Bosne i Hercegovine.

Metodologija/Dizajn:  U istraživanju je analizirana saradnja Sjevernoatlantskog saveza i Bosne i Hercegovine, kao i prednosti priključenja Bosne i Hercegovine u Sjevernoatlantski savez. S obzirom da se radi o teorijskom istraživanju pregled dostupne literature o saradnji Sjevernoatlantskog saveza i Bosne i Hercegovine izvršen je kroz korištenje općih znanstvenih metoda, prvenstveno metode deskripcije kako bi se ispunili osnovni metodološki pristupi.  U razmatranju dostupne literature o saradnji Sjevernoatlantskog saveza i Bosne i Hercegovine nisu korištene posebne metode prikupljanja podataka.

Ograničenja istraživanja/rada: U istraživanju su navedene prednosti ulaska Bosne i Hercegovine u Sjevernoatlantski savez, odnosno pozitivna stajališta ulaska Bosne i Hercegovine u Sjevernoatlantski savez. Ograničenja ovog istraživanja vezana su uz nedostatak negativnih stajališta ulaska Bosne i Hercegovine u Sjevernoatlantski savez. U  cilju daljeg istraživanja korisno je navesti i negativna stajališta ulaska Bosne i Hercegovine u Sjevernoatlantski savez. Bosna i Hercegovina bi ulaskom u Sjevernoatlantski savez imala vojne, političke, ekonomske, društvene ali i brojne sigurnosne posljedice, kao što su: postizanje određenih, ali ne apsolutnih garancija kolektivne odbrane; povećanu mogućnost uticaja na rješavanje regionalnih i sigurnosnih pitanja; povećano izlaganje sigurnosnim rizicima koji proizilaze iz međunarodnog sigurnosnog angažiranja; zahtjevne operacije u koje će se uključivati; složeni izazovi i niz negativnih uticaja na razvoj odbrambenog sistema Bosne i Hercegovine. Ipak navedena ograničenja ne smanjuju ostvarene rezultate istraživanja i predstavljaju izazov za dalje istraživanje, koje bi svakako bilo upotpunjeno sa svim negativnim stajalištima ulaska Bosne i Hercegovine u Sjevernoatlantski savez.

Rezultati/Nalazi: Sjevernoatlantski savez određuje partnerske ciljeve u saradnji sa Ministarstvom odbrane Bosne i Hercegovine koje u tom periodu Bosna i Hercegovina treba da ispuni. Priključenje Bosne i Hercegovine u Sjevernoatlantski savez je veoma složen proces, u kome je potrebno sprovesti institucionalne i legislativne reforme u oblasti odbrane, sigurnosti i ekonomije. U proteklom periodu Bosna i Hercegovina je učinila mnogo u procesu reforme odbrane, čiju je implementaciju Sjevernoatlantski savez u značajnoj mjeri pomogao. Postizanje punopravnog članstva u Sjevernoatlantski savez za Bosnu i Hercegovinu značio bi ulazak u grupu demokratskih država. To bi unaprijedilo promicanje  mira, sigurnosti i stabilnosti zemlje. Tim činom bi dodatno ojačao ugled Bosne i Hercegovine na međunarodnoj pozornici. Priključivanje Bosne i Hercegovine Sjevernoatlantskom savezu predstavlja priliku da se bilo kakvi sukobi, kao i krizne situacije suzbiju i da se rješavaju demokratskim, a ne vojnim sredstvima. Ulaskom Bosne i Hercegovine u Sjevernoatlantski savez Bosna i Hercegovina bi se priključila i zemljama okruženja. Time bi znatno ojačala svoj geopolitički položaj, kao i odbrambene sposobnosti i imala bi mogućnost ravnopravnog odlučivanja unutar Sjevernoatlantskog saveza.

Generalni zaključak: Saradnja  Sjevernoatlantskog saveza i Bosne i Hercegovine zavisi od 
toga koliko je Bosna i Hercegovina pripremljena da jača demokratiju i procese reformi odbrambenog sistema u Bosni i Hercegovini. Reforma odbrane u Bosni i Hercegovini i političko-vojni program Sjevernoatlantskog saveza predstavljali su pravi izbor za Bosnu i Hercegovinu. Sjevernoatlantski savez je osim definiranja šta Bosna i Hercegovina treba da uradi kako bi postala kredibilan kandidat za članstvo Partnerstva za mir paralelno pomagao zalaganja Bosne i Hercegovine u nastojanju da svoj cilj i ostvari. Bosni i Hercegovini je  povoljno koristila metodologija političko-vojnog programa.

Opravdanost istraživanja/rada: Rezultati istraživanja saradnje Sjevernoatlantskog saveza i Bosne i  Hercegovine trebali bi opravdati kako naučni, tako i društveni značaj ovog rada. Što se tiče doprinosa saradnje Sjevernoatlantskog saveza i Bosne i  Hercegovine treba se imati u vidu da je doprinos opravdanosti istraživanja i aktualni, s obzirom da je u sjedište Sjevernoatlantskog saveza u Briselu poslat Program reformi Bosne i Hercegovine, koji se suštinski ne razlikuje od Godišnjeg nacionalnog plana (ANP) koji priprema svaka država koja želi da postane članica Sjevernoatlantskog saveza. Predajom dokumenta Programa reformi Bosne i Hercegovine će se nastaviti partnerstvo i saradnja Bosne i Hercegovine sa Sjevernoatlantskim savezom. Bosna i Hercegovina je završila Individualni partnerski akcijski  plan. Teorijsko objašnjenje saradnje Sjevernoatlantskog saveza i Bosne i Hercegovine nam omogućava da bolje sagledamo koliko je učinjeno na polju ulaska Bosne i Hercegovine u Sjevernoatlantski savez i koliko je Bosna i Hercegovina zaista spremna ući u najmoćniji savez u svijetu.

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COOPERATION BETWEEN NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANISATION AND BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

Reason for writing and research problem(s): Bosnia and Herzegovina, a country in transition, seeks to achieve its strategic goals, namely membership of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU). The method of accession to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization has a specific, clearly defined procedure. Accession to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization is technically through participation in the Political-Military Partnership for Peace program, the Planning and Review Process, the Individual Partnership Program, the Individual Partnership Action Plan, the Membership Action Plan and the Concept of Operational Capabilities and Evaluation and Feedback. Defense reform in Bosnia and Herzegovina is based on the principle of collective security. The process of defense reform in Bosnia and Herzegovina involves the creation of professional Armed Forces, which requires organizational, material, procedural and other compliance to be used jointly with NATO and NATO / PfP forces in different conditions to carry out missions and tasks.

Aims of the paper ( scientific and/or social): The aim of the paper is to get acquainted with the complementary mechanisms by which the cooperation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and Bosnia and Herzegovina takes place.

Methodology/Design: The study analyzed the cooperation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as the advantages of joining Bosnia and Herzegovina to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Given that this is a theoretical study, a review of the available literature on cooperation between the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and Bosnia and Herzegovina has been made through the use of general scientific methods, primarily descriptive method, to fulfill basic methodological approaches. In considering the available literature on cooperation between the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and Bosnia and Herzegovina, no specific data collection methods were used.

Research/Paper limitation: The study outlines the advantages of Bosnia and Herzegovina entry into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and the positive views of Bosnia and Herzegovina entry into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The limitations of this research are related to the lack of negative views on Bosnia and Herzegovina entry into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. For the sake of further research, it is also useful to cite the negative views of Bosnia and Herzegovina entry into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Bosnia and Herzegovina would have military, political, economic, social but also numerous security implications by joining the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, such as: achieving certain but not absolute guarantees of collective defense; increased ability to influence regional and security issues; increased exposure to security risks arising from international security engagement; demanding operations that will include complex challenges and a range of negative impacts on the development of the defense system of Bosnia and Herzegovina. However, these limitations do not diminish the results of the research and pose a challenge for further research, which would certainly be complemented by all the negative views of Bosnia and Herzegovina entry into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

Results/Findings: The North Atlantic Treaty Organization sets partnership goals in cooperation with the Ministry of Defense of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which Bosnia and Herzegovina must meet during this period. The accession of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization is a very complex process, in which it is necessary to implement institutional and legislative reforms in the fields of defense, security and economy. In the past, Bosnia and Herzegovina has done a great deal in the defense reform process, the implementation of which has been greatly assisted by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization Achieving full membership of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization for Bosnia and Herzegovina would mean joining a group of democratic states. This would advance the promotion of peace, security and stability of the country. This would further strengthen Bosnia and Herzegovina reputation on the international stage. The accession of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization represents an opportunity for any conflict as well as crisis situations to be suppressed and resolved through democratic rather than military means. With the accession of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Bosnia and Herzegovina would join the countries of the region. In doing so, it would substantially strengthen its geopolitical position as well as its defense capabilities and would be able to make equal decisions within the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

General Conclusion: The cooperation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and Bosnia and Herzegovina depends on the extent to which Bosnia and Herzegovina is prepared to strengthen democracy and the reform processes of the defense system in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Defense reform in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the political and military program of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization were the right choice for Bosnia and Herzegovina. In addition to defining what Bosnia and Herzegovina needs to do in order to become a credible candidate for membership of the Partnership for Peace, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization has simultaneously assisted Bosnia and Herzegovina efforts to achieve its goal. Bosnia and Herzegovina has benefited from the methodology of the political-military  program.

Research/Paper Validity: The results of the study of cooperation between the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and Bosnia and Herzegovina should justify both the scientific and social importance of this work. Regarding the contribution of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization to Bosnia and Herzegovina, it should be borne in mind that the contribution to the justification of the research is up-to-date, given that the Reform Program of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is not fundamentally different from the Annual National Plan, was sent to Brussels Headquarters (ANP) prepared by any country wishing to become a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The submission of the document of the Reform Program of Bosnia and Herzegovina will continue the partnership and cooperation of Bosnia and Herzegovina with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Bosnia and Herzegovina has completed the Individual Partnership Action Plan. The theoretical explanation of the cooperation between the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and Bosnia and Herzegovina allows us to better understand how much has been done in the field of Bosnia and Herzegovina entry into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and how much Bosnia and Herzegovina is really ready to enter the most powerful alliance in the world.


Keywords


Sjevernoatlantski savez; reforma u oblasti odbrane Bosne i Hercegovine; komplementarni mehanizmi; prednosti; North Atlantic Treaty Organisation; defense reform of Bosnia and Herzegovina; complementary mechanisms; advantages

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